Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare immune system disorder that affects the lungs. It occurs in some people after they breathe in certain substances they encounter in the environment. These substances trigger their immune systems, causing short- or long-term inflammation, especially in a part of the lungs called the interstitium. This inflammation makes it harder for the lungs to function properly and may even permanently damage the lungs. If diagnosed, some types of hypersensitivity pneumonitis are treatable by avoiding exposure to the environmental substances or with medicines such as corticosteroids that reduce inflammation. If the condition goes untreated or is not well controlled over time, the chronic inflammation can cause irreversible scarring of the lungs that may severely impair their ability to function.

Explore the hypersensitivity pneumonitis Health Topic sections to learn more about this condition, NHLBI’s role in research and clinical trials to improve health, and where to find more information.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is caused by repeated exposure to environmental substances that cause inflammation in the lungs when inhaled. These substances include certain:

  • Bacteria and mycobacteria
  • Fungi or molds
  • Proteins
  • Chemicals

Learn more about common environmental sources of substances that may cause your condition.

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โรคหลอดเลือดสมอง (Stroke or cerebrovascular disease) -โรงพยาบาลแมคคอร์มิค  เชียงใหม่ McCormick Hospital ChiangMai


In recent years stroke has become more common among people below the age of 60. The elderly, working-age adults and even teenagers can be threatened depending on a range of factors.

Embolic Stroke

Occurs when a blood clot forms elsewhere (e.g. the heart), travels via the bloodstream, and clogs the tiny blood vessel in the brain.

Cerebral Thrombosis

Occurs when a blood clot forms inside a blood vessel within the brain which has been narrowed by the build up of fatty substances (atherosclerosis).

Hemorrhagic Stroke

Occurs when weakened blood vessels rupture and bleed in the brain. The blood accumulates and puts pressure on the surrounding brain tissues, causing damages.   Time is the key to treatments. If any of the FAST symptoms appear, patients need to be in the care of  specialists as soon as possible. If reached in a timely manner, modern technology can greatly improve the chances of survival and complete recovery.


If any of these symptoms occur, go to the hospital immediately.

  • F-Face Drooping : Uneven or lopsided smile. Especially with severe headache.
  • A-Arm Weakness : Cannot raise the arms. Numb limbs. Unsteady walk.
  • S-Speech Difficulty : Unable to speak or complete a sentence.
  • T-Time

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Enhancing Surgical Performance by Hybrid Operating Room

Hybrid operating room

Our hybrid operating room an advanced surgical theatre that is well equipped with cardiovascular operating room and cardiac catheterization laboratory (cath lab). cardiothoracic surgeons to perform interventional and surgical procedures at the same time. The efficient fluid resuscitation enables patient’s blood pressure to be kept steadily while performing operation. As a result, more safety and lower operative complications could be achieved.

Enhancing Surgical Performance by Hybrid Operating Room

Our hybrid operating room at Bangkok Heart Hospital is an advanced surgical theatre that is well equipped with cardiovascular operating room and cardiac catheterization laboratory (cath lab). Diagnostic imaging equipment is used to visualize the abnormalities of arteries of the heart while cardiac operation is performed.  advanced fluid management system, with maximum rate of fluid infusion up to 6 L./min,  is used to replace body fluid from blood loss during surgery. The efficient fluid resuscitation enables patient’s blood pressure to be kept steadily while performing operation. As a result, more safety and lower operative complications could be achieved.

Benefits of minimally invasive surgery for aortic aneurysm   AND hybrid operating room

  • Smaller incision and less pain.
  • Reduced blood loss and chance of receiving blood infusion after surgery.
  • Faster recovery time and shorter hospital stay which usually takes 5-7 days, depending on medical conditions of each patient.

Before treatment begins, patients and families will be fully informed about surgical benefits and possible risks.

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Healthy Food For Healthy Heart

Heart Healthy Choices

Excessive cholesterol can develop fatty deposits in blood vessels, leading to serious health problems such as cardiovascular disease. A healthy diet and lifestyle changes are the best weapons to fight against cardiovascular disease. Making the simple steps for long-term benefits to the heart is highly recommended.

Healthy diet guidelines to prevent heart and cholesterol disease

The American Heart Association (AHA) publishes dietary and lifestyle recommendations for general heart health. These recommendations are for healthy adults as well as people who already have health problems such as coronary artery disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The recommendations include:

  1. Eat a variety of fruit and vegetable servings every day. Dark green, deep orange or yellow fruits and vegetables are especially nutritious. Examples include spinach, carrots, peaches and berries;
  2. Eat a variety of grain products every day including whole-grain foods that contain lots of fiber and nutrients. Examples of whole grains include oats, whole wheat bread and brown rice;
  3. Eat foods which are low in saturated fat and trans fat . Try to choose the lean meats and meat alternatives such as beans or tofu or beans. Foods are preferred to be cooked by boiling, steaming and grilling;
  4. Eat fish at least 2 times each week. Oily fish containing omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for the heart. These fish include tuna, salmon, mackerel, lake trout, herring and sardines;
  5. Eat nonfat and low-fat dairy products e.g. yoghurt, cheese and skim milk;
  6. Eat polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fats such as canola, soy bean, sunflower seed, corn and olive oils to replace saturated fats e.g. butter, margarine and lard;
  7. Limit the consumption of added sugar in food and drinks while consuming proper portion of meals;
  8. Limit sodium intake e.g. fish source, salt and salty sauces;
  9. Limit alcohol intake to 2 drinks a day for men and 1 drink a day for women; and
  10. Increase the amount and intensity of physical activity to burn more calories. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous physical activity (or an equal combination of both) each week.

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Premature Babies. Appropriate Care Enhances Proper Child Development.

Premature babies. Appropriate care enhances proper child development. |  Bangkok Hospital

When a baby is born more than three weeks earlier than the estimated due date, that baby is called “premature baby”. Premature babies have not grown and developed as much as they should have before birth. Thus, as a consequence, it might potentially impair growth and child development. The parents of premature babies are always concerned whether their kids will be able to grow up healthily as the normal kids. In fact, child development substantially depends on both maternal factors and babies themselves. The special care appropriately suggested by expert pediatricians and regular health check-ups are the essential keys to largely helps premature babies to continue their growth and development in the similar way to the normal babies do.


Contributing Factors To Premature Birth That Impair Baby’s Growth And Development

There are known risk factors of premature delivery derived from both mothers and babies, including:

Mother’s factors

Maternal factors that increase chances of premature birth might include:

  • Giving birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. Younger gestational age is associated with increased risk of complications and premature birth;
  • Younger than 16 or older than 35;
  • Some infections, particularly the infection of the amniotic fluid and lower genital tract. Typically, baby is surrounded and cushioned by a fluid-filled membranous sac called the amniotic sac. At the beginning of or during labor, membranes will rupture — also known as water breaking. If water breaks before labor starts longer than 18 hours (called prelabor rupture of membranes), chances of premature birth significantly increase;
  • Problems with the placenta, uterus or cervix e.g. short cervix;
  • Some chronic underlying conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes;
  • Having a previous premature birth;
  • Multiple miscarriages or abortions;
  • History of preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and signs of damage to another organ system, most often the liver and kidneys; and
  • Pregnancy with twins or other multiples.

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Resistance band exercises

Exercising with a resistance band can help improve your strength and flexibility. See suggested exercises and watch our exclusive video.

Resistance bands are large elastic bands that you can use to exercise all areas of the body. They can be good for people with limited mobility, as many of the exercises can be done while seated.

“We should all do muscle-strengthening exercises at least twice a week,” says BHF physical activity specialist Lisa Purcell.

Strength activities make your muscles stronger while flexibility exercises stretch them, making everyday activities easier. Some of these can be done while seated.

If you have a heart condition or high blood pressure it’s important to check with your doctor or cardiac rehabilitation team what sort of activities you can safely do and how much you should do.

Lateral Raise

Resistance bands - lateral raise Stand up, place both feet on the middle of the resistance band and hold each end of it with your hands.

Raise both arms to the side, until they reach shoulder height, then return to your starting position and repeat ten times.


Resistance bands - squats Place both feet on the middle of the resistance band and hold each end of it with your hands. Slowly bend your knees into a squatting position, then return to your starting position and repeat ten times.

Chest Press

Resistance bands - chest pressSit or stand and put the resistance band behind your back and hold each end of it. Stretch both arms out in front of your chest, then return to your starting position and repeat ten times.

Leg Press

Resistance bands - leg pressSit on a chair with your back straight. Place one foot in the middle of the resistance band and hold both ends of it with your hands. Bend your knee towards you, then straighten it back out in front of you before returning to your starting position and repeating with each leg ten times.

Bicep Curl

Resistance bands - bicep curl Sit or stand, place both your feet on the middle of the resistance band and hold each end of it with your hands. Raise your arms out in front of you to chest height, then return to your starting position and repeat ten times.

Seated Calf Press

Resistance bands - calf pressSit on a chair with your back straight. Place one foot in the middle of the resistance band and hold both ends of it with your hands.

Extend your leg and point your toes towards the ceiling, then point your toes forwards towards the ground.

Return to the starting position and repeat with each leg ten times.

Triceps Press

Resistance bands - tricep pressStand up and place one end of the resistance band under the heel of one of your feet. Hold the other end of the band with both your hands, stretch the band so it runs behind your body and pull it above your head, then return to your starting position and repeat ten times on each side.

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Biological therapy for cancer

Biological Therapy - Cancer Treatment | The Cancer Centre

Biological therapy for cancer is a type of treatment that uses the body’s immune system to kill cancer cells.

Biological therapy for cancer is used in the treatment of many types of cancer to prevent or slow tumor growth and to prevent the spread of cancer. Biological therapy for cancer often causes fewer toxic side effects than do other cancer treatments.

How biological therapy works

The goal of biological therapy is to induce your immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells.

Your body’s immune system fights invaders, such as germs, throughout your body. Your immune system should also recognize cancer cells as abnormal, but it doesn’t always do that. Cancer cells can develop an ability to hide from immune system cells. Or cancer cells can disable or inhibit immune system cells from acting.

In general, biological therapies work by:

  • Inducing the immune system to attack cancer cells. There are several ways biological therapy treatments can achieve this goal. As an example, chemicals that stimulate your immune system cells could be injected into your body. Or a sample of your immune system cells could be trained in a lab to attack cancer cells before being reintroduced to your body.
  • Making cancer cells easier for your immune system to recognize. Biological therapy can also target the cancer cells, turning on or off cell signals that help them elude the immune system cells. As an example, drugs called immune checkpoint inhibitors can target specific chemical receptors on cancer cells, blocking the signals the cancer cells send to suppress the immune system.

Types of biological therapy

Several types of biological therapy exist, including:

  • Adoptive cell transfer
  • Angiogenesis inhibitors
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy
  • Biochemotherapy
  • Cancer vaccines
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy
  • Cytokine therapy
  • Gene therapy
  • Immune checkpoint modulators
  • Immunoconjugates
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Oncolytic virus therapy
  • Targeted drug therapy

Many types of biological therapy are available only in clinical trials. Biological therapy for cancer is a very active area of cancer research.

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MAGEC: Spinal Surgery In Children With Spinal Scoliosis

กระดูกสันหลังคดในเด็ก, ผ่าตัดกระดูกสันหลังคดในเด็ก, กระดูกสันหลังคด, กระดูกสันหลังคด เกิดจากSpinal surgery in very young children In Children With Spinal Scoliosis

with continuous growth of spine has been dramatically developed in recent years. The new surgical approach, called MAGEC or Magnetic Expansion Control System with a growing rod has been used in the US since 2014.

Superior Advantages Of MAGEC  Children With Spinal surgery

After surgery, regular visits at the hospital to extend the rod with magnetic control are generally required with a 2-3 month interval. Painless adjustment takes only 30 seconds up to 1 minute at outpatient department. The rod can be extended from 3 up to 7 mm. in each time, resulting in the gradual improvement

In comparison to conventional spinal fusion, benefits of MAGEC include:

  • A frequent open surgery to adjust the rods every 6 months is not required.
  • Small incisions lead to less pain and fewer tissue injuries after operation.
  • Reduced potential risks from multiple surgeries.
  • A better surgical outcome might be obtained.

The ultimate goal of spinal scoliosis treatment in children is to prevent further disease severity and its complications that largely impact daily activities and impair quality of life. If signs of scoliosis are indicated, medical attention must be sought immediately in order to receive effective and appropriate treatments from highly experienced and well-trained spine surgeons.

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Relevant Symptoms Of Presbyopia

Presbyopia: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment | Vision Center

Presbyopia develops gradually. Common signs and symptoms after age 40 include:

  • Blurred vision at normal reading distance (approximately 30 cm.) A tendency to hold reading material further away to make the letters clearer and readable.
  • Eyestrain or headaches after reading or doing close-up work.
  • In case of having nearsightedness or myopia, glasses need to be removed in order to see a near object clearer.

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Pressure Ulcers – Dangers If Left Untreated

Bedsores (pressure ulcers): Treatments, stages, causes, and pictures

Pressure ulcers or bedsores are areas of breakdown in the skin. This usually occurs over areas where there is little cushion between the bone and the skin, commonly the tailbone, the heels, and the hips. Pressure ulcers can develop even with the best of care. There are many risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers including immobility and debilitating illness. If left untreated, pressure sores are extremely difficult to heal and may even lead to death.

What Is Pressure Ulcers?

Pressure ulcers are injuries to skin and underlying tissue resulting from prolonged pressure on the skin. They are most often develop on skin that covers bony areas of the body, such as the heels, ankles, hips and tailbone. A pressure sore might be painful.


Risk Factors

  • Immobility – patients who spend most of their time in a bed or chair
  • Patients with a medical condition that limits their ability to change positions
  • Malnutrition, dehydration – can lead to skin thinning and poor blood supply, meaning that skin is more fragile
  • Diabetes, vascular disease
  • Urinary and fecal incontinence – skin exposed to urine or feces is more susceptible to irritation and damage

Stages Of Pressure Sores

  • Stage 1 – Skin is not broken but is red or discolored. When you press on it, it stays red and does not lighten or turn white (blanch).
  • Stage 2 – The topmost layer of skin is broken, creating a shallow open sore. No blisters.
  • Stage 3 – The wound extends through the dermis (second layer of skin) into the fatty subcutaneous tissue.
  • Stage 4 – The wound extends into the muscle and can extend as far down as the bone.

Moreover, there is a pressure sore called deep tissue injury (DTI). Deep tissue injury is purple or maroon localized area of discolored intact skin or blood-filled blister due to damage of underlying soft tissue from pressure or shear. The area may be surrounded by tissue that is painful.

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